tcp ip model

What is the TCP/IP Model? Just like human beings we communicate with each other, it’s important for computers to have a common way to communicate with each other. In today’s time, most computers do this through the TCP/IP model or protocol. Computers are so powerful that they can do many jobs. Computers’ original or right shine comes when they communicate …

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tcp retransmission

What is retransmission in TCP? Error control and Duplicate Acknowledgement. In other articles, we have covered how the TCP setup and closes a connection.  After connection establishment, during data transfer, there could be packet losses/garbled due to various reasons. Being a reliable protocol, TCP has retransmission functionality for error recovery. In this tutorial, we will learn why and when packets …

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ip header format with explanation

IP header format – Explanation of all fields What is the IP header? IP header is the piece of information that is inserted by the IP layer while sending the network packet to the remote peer. For a received message from the peer, the IP layer removes the header.  The header information works as a piece of control information for …

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tcp flow control

 What is the TCP flow control? Before discussing what TCP flow control is, we will describe what is flow control in computer networks.  When two hosts communicate with each other, one sends packets, and the other receives.  Both may have different hosting hardware, software design, and processing speed.  When the receiver is fast enough to process a message from the …

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tcp keep alive

What is TCP Keepalive Before going into details of TCP keep alive.  We will have an overview of what is keepalive in general? Connection-oriented network protocols use the keepalive technique, to check the health of a connection. Keepalive requires a periodic check over a connection when there is no data in either direction for a long time. Very useful in …

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tcp sequence number

What is the TCP sequence number?  Before starting anything about the TCP sequence numbering, we must understand the two main functionalities of the protocol.  It is an example of a transport layer protocol as per the OSI model. TCP provides reliable and sequenced delivery of messages in each direction between two hosts. Reliable means no packet loss and sequence delivery …

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