tcp sequence number

What is the TCP sequence number?  Before starting anything about the TCP sequence numbering mechanism, we must understand the two main functionalities of TCP protocol.  TCP is an example of a transport layer protocol as per the OSI model. TCP provides reliable and sequenced delivery of messages in each direction.  Reliable means no packet loss and sequence …

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auc in gsm

AUC in GSM, 2G, 3G and LTE authentication Each mobile device has a sim card in telecom, which authenticates from a mobile operator of sim provider, before any voice, SMS or data services. Why we need Auc in GSM, as the network is owned by mobile operators, so all communication must be safe? We need …

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m2pa vs m3ua

M2pa vs M3ua M2PA is a Sigtran layer. In another article, we have discussed the Sigtran with a detailed example of m3ua.  In this tutorial, we will discuss another layer M2pa. Along with m2pa, we will also discuss the comparison with M3UA.  Before starting a discussion about m2pa vs m3ua, let’s have an introduction about …

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What is femtocell

What is femtocell? As with the growing need to get connected all the time increasing. This results in the femtocell. A femtocell is a small device that is installed inside a premise. Maybe it is in office or home that gives more coverage to the mobile operator and better voice quality to a subscriber. It …

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camel subscription information

Camel Subscription Information (CSI) In another tutorial, we have discussed the camel protocol.  The tutorial mentions introductory information about the camel subscription information(CSI) along with other protocol details. Here we will discuss in detail the structure and components of the camel subscription information. In CSI, subscription means, that a subscriber needs to have camel information …

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