What is point to point Topology in Networking?

Point to Point Connection Topology

In a point-to-point topology, two nodes (computers, routers, hubs, etc.) form a computer network. Both connect to each other directly by LAN cables or any other physical medium.

Creating a computer network using this method is the simplest and most cost-effective method. The sender writes to one end, and the receiver receives from another end without requiring any intermediate routing decisions.

A dedicated channel connects the two hosts. Therefore, the entire capacity of the underline medium is reserved for communication. A major disadvantage of this network is that there can only be a maximum of two nodes.

A simple example is the home’s remote control for the air conditioner, which operates through a point-to-point connection.

How can two distant devices be connected virtually in a point-to-point manner?

Other networks also use point-to-point topologies, such as WAN or satellite links. In WAN, although the endpoints (located at distant places) do not connect with a direct cable, both set up a direct tunnel between.

In a typical WAN example, the two distance routers set up a tunnel using a point-to-point protocol(PPP). The connection works at the data link layer level as per the OSI model. Frames are directly transferred from source to destination.

What are the advantages of Point-to-Point Topology?

  • Very easy to maintain. You can replace a wire within a few seconds if the wire has a problem.
  • Maximum utilization of the underlying connecting link bandwidth.
  • This is the simplest topology compared to any other network topology type.
  • Least minor delays in communication as compared to any other network connection type.
  • Low-cost option when you have only two nodes to connect

What are the Disadvantages of Point-to-Point Topology?

  • The network performance depends on a single link only. If the link is down, the entire network stops working.
  • Because of the need for a direct connection, topology can not be expanded to a large area. E.g., if there is a multistory building, two computers may be far apart.
  • There is only one server or client. If anyone fails, all will stop working. You can not take advantage of the network cluster. Not suitable for any database servers.
  • Only applicable when the two devices are in proximity to each other such as connecting a printer.

Point-to-point connection type or application:

Other than cable, there can be following some more types.

  1. Leased Line
  2. Dedicated Fiber Lines.
  3. E1/T1 links in Ss7