Point to Point Topology in Networking – Learn Network Topology

Point to Point Connection Topology

In a point-to-point topology, two nodes (e.g computers) in a network connect to each other directly using a LAN cable or any other medium for data transmission. This is the simplest and low-cost option for creating a computer network.

Because only two parties are using the underlying network, the entire bandwidth of the connecting link is reserved between two nodes. The major disadvantage is that there can be a maximum of two nodes in the network.

One of the simplest examples is the remote control of the air conditioner in the home.  Where a point-to-point connection works between.

Point to Point Network connection using a protocol:

There are other networks that also use point-to-point topologies, such as WAN or satellite links. In WAN although the endpoints (located at far places) do not connect with a direct cable, both set up a direct tunnel between. In a typical WAN, the two distance routers set up a tunnel using a point-to-point protocol(PPP). The connection works at the data link layer level as per the OSI model. Frames are directly transferred from source to destination.

Advantages of Point to Point Topology:

  • Very easy to maintain, if a wire has a problem you can replace it within a few seconds.
  • Maximum utilization of the underlying connecting link bandwidth.
  • This is the most simple topology as compared to any other network topology type.
  • Least delay in communication as compared to any other network connection type.
  • Low-cost option when you have only two nodes to connect

Disadvantages of Point to Point Topology:

  • The network performance depends on a single link only. If the common link is down, the entire network stop working.
  • Because of the need for a direct connection, topology can not be expanded to a large area. E.g. if there is a multistory building, two computers may be far apart.
  • There is only one server or client if anyone fails all will stop working.  You can not take advantage of the network cluster.  Not good for any database servers.
  • Only applicable when the two devices are in proximity to each other such as connecting a printer.

Point to point connection type  or application:

Other than cable there can be following some more types

  1. Leased Line
  2. Dedicated Fiber Lines.
  3. E1/T1 links in Ss7