What is SS7 protocol?
SS7 protocol or signaling system 7, is the legacy protocol used by the Traditional or legacy telephony system. SS7 standards defined by the standard body ITU-T(International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector ). E1 or T1 cables are used in ss7 for physical connections. An E1 having 32-time slots and T1 have 24-time slots, there are others as well. The protocol is layer architecture, which follows the OSI model. The protocol layer below is the service provider, and the layer above is a service user. SS7 trunks are setup between telephone exchange to carry ss7 signaling and voice. An ss7 trunk has multiple circuits for voice. When a call originates from a switch/exchange, an ISUP circuit is reserved from the trunk.
Ss7 protocol stack or Ss7 protocol Layers:
SS7 protocol stack or signaling system 7, have the following layers.
Message Transfer Part 1 (MTP1)
This is the physical layer of signaling system 7, which transfers bits over a physical channel. It has the physical ports to connect the wires. A card may have its own CPU. When someone buys an SS7 card, it also comes with MTP2.
This is the data link layer. It transfers the error-free frames between two directly connected nodes. It maintains receiving and sending windows.
Functionalities of MTP2 layer:
Message Transfer Part 3(MTP3),
This is the network layer that implements mtp3 protocol. This does end to end routing of SS7 messages. This is the network layer in the ss7 protocol stack. For routing mtp3 routing, the level is defined. The routing level is defined in the MTP3 header, which contains OPC, DPC, and SLS. Mtp3 specification is given in Q.704. DPC is the point code of destination ss7 node, OPC is the originating point code, and SLS is used for load distribution of MTP3 user messages over links.
When a message is passed from MTP2 to MTP3, the routing level, SIO, and MTP3 user data is passed in the message. MTP3 has two major functions, discrimination, and distribution. Discrimination function decides if the message is for the self node or for some other distance node. The discrimination function uses DPC. If a message is for a self node, then it is passed to the distribution function. The distribution function checks SI, which is part of SIO. The value of SI identifies the user of MTP3. Eg id SI is 5, the message is delivered to the ISUP layer over MTP3, if the value of SI is 3 then the message is delivered to the SCCP layer over MTP3.
Mtp3 Layer Functions:
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) Protocol Layer
This is the transport layer and user of MTP3. Do the segmentation/reassembly of large messages if required. A user application is identified by an SSN (subsystem number at SCCP level). An SSN is a standard numeric value that identifies an application/node in the GSM network.
- HLR – SSN 6
- VLR-SSN 7
- MSC – SSN 8
- SGSN – SSN 149
The node on the SCCP layer is identified by a Global title. A global title is a sequence of digits, that is unique globally. The phone number of a person is an example of a global title. SCCP layer does SSN management and global title translation.
SSN configured on the SCCP layer can be local or remote. Before sending a message to peer SSN, SCCP layers check the status of remote SSN, if is down message is dropped. To check the status of an SSN, a peer transmits the SST and wait for SSA. This procedure is optional, a remote SSN can be marked as available when peer point code comes up after successful link alignment.
Global Title Translation:
An SCCP address has called party and calling party address in the SCCP header, both addresses are global titles. Upon receiving, SCCP checks if GT, matches the current node. If yes then the Called Party GT is translated to the point code of the current node. The message delivers to the local user identified by the called party SSN present in the incoming messages.
If a message is not of local use, the GT can be translated into another GT or PC. Or it can be forward to the next hope. If the current nodes know the point code which is serving the called party address then the gt is translated on point code else forwards to next hope.
SCCP message classes:
Class 0, connection less non sequenced message.Class 1, connection less sequenced delivery of messages.Class 2, connection oriented without flow control.Class 3, connection oriented with flow control.
User Primitives of SCCP Layer:
A user primitive is the interface a layer provides to access its services, SCCP Provides request primitives, to request a service from layer and Indication primitives, to inform events received from the network.
Sccp Primitives (Connection Less)
Belongs to the class 0 and 1. No prior logical connection is setup. The messages are routed based on the called party address parameter. Class 0 messages are delivered not in sequence while class 1 messages delivered in sequence. ISUP and TCAP use connectionless SCCP protocol.